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#1 27-04-08 12:02:54

Luchell
Verified Member
From: Salisbury
Registered: 12-06-07
Posts: 1,661

Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

I have popped this into it's own thread so it's easy to find for any pdis who may benefit from it. As written by Adi training who will be adding more soon.

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27-04-08 12:02:54

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Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.




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#2 27-04-08 12:03:08

Luchell
Verified Member
From: Salisbury
Registered: 12-06-07
Posts: 1,661

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

You should introduce yourself and tell the pupil what you are going to teach and how you're going to teach it at the test center. You'll be in the driving seat as it's his first lesson so quickly show him how you do the cockpit drill and why you need to do it. (because it's dangerous trying to adjust things while you're driving)

Below a rough idea of how the cockpit & controls lesson could be delivered... I've covered everything on the PST marking sheet but you probably won't get that far. It's not how far you get, it's the quality of the information you deliver. Don't forget - the examiner will try to make faults even with the cockpit drill so you must ensure you spot them and correct them as they occur.


Cockpit & Controls Example Breifing

The examiner will say something like “This is the test of your ability as an instructor, regard me as a pupil and instruct me in the same way as you would normally. It may be necessary for me to interrupt you from time to time. This could be because we are moving on to the next stage or if time is running short.

"I would like you to assume that I am a complete beginner and have never sat in the driving seat of a car before. Instruct me on the safety aspects on entering the car for the first time, explain the important controls, and if time permits instruct me in moving off and stopping. Please correct any faults that may occur”.

Since the pupil has never driven before, you will usually drive the examiner to the training area under his directions. Begin the lesson at the test center by introducing yourself and asking his name. Find out what the pupil may already know about driving and why he wants to learn while you are driving to the training area. Use this time to put the pupil at ease and tell him what he can expect from the lesson. You should also ask if his eyesight has been checked and that he has signed his driving license (he will say that his eyesight and license are OK to save time). Your driving ability is not measured and will not affect your grade since this is a test of your ability to teach, not your ability to drive.

Introductions - At test centre
Hello, my name is <your name> Is it OK to call you Peter? <answers 'yes'> - Hi Peter, nice to meet you.

I understand this is your very first driving lesson and you've never driven a car before? <answers 'yes'>.
Have you ridden a pushbike on the roads before? <answers 'yes'>
Did your bike have gears? <answers 'yes'>

Good. The gears on a car are bit like the gears on a bike so we can probably use that to help you understand the gears a bit later on.

Aims and objectives
Before you can drive a car, you need to know what the main driving controls are called and how to use them. You also need to know how to adjust the seat and mirrors. So that's basically what we'll be covering today.

By the end of today's lesson you'll know how to do the 'cockpit drill'. That's just a little routine you need to do every time you get into the car to make sure the seat and mirrors are adjusted properly before you start driving. You'll also learn where the foot pedals are and how to use them. How to use the hand brake, gear lever, steering wheel and indicators. I'll explain the wipers, lights and other controls as and when we need them.

If there's enough time left after that I'll teach you how to start up the engine and you may be able to do a little bit of driving. In case we get that far, can I just check that you've signed your driving license and your eyesight is OK? <answers 'yes everything's fine'> - Good.

It's a bit busy here so I'm just going to drive us to a quiet road where we start the lesson. If you watch me you'll have a good idea what you'll be doing today...

The first thing I need to do before set off is the cockpit drill. So I start off by checking that all the doors are closed properly. Next I check that my seat is adjusted for my legs and arms. I need to be able to press the pedals down and turn the steering wheel without stretching or being too crunched up. That feels OK. The head restraint is touching the back of my skull. I've got my seatbelt on and the mirrors are set so that I've got a good view of the road behind. I also check that my passengers have got their seat belts on and their head restraints are set correctly before we go. Your head restraint looks OK to me so could you just put your seatbelt on please? - Thank you.

Before I start up the engine, I check that the hand brake is on and I'm not in gear. I select first gear and then look in the mirrors for a safe gap in the traffic behind. When it's clear I look all around the car, especially over my right shoulder, I don't need to give a signal, and then I gently release the hand brake and bring up the clutch pedal very slowly so that I pull away smoothly.

I'm going to explain everything I just did in a lot more detail when we get to the training area so don't worry about remembering things just yet. If you keep an eye on my steering, I'll show you how to steer without crossing your arms...

(give commentary drive with items relevant to the lesson and try to put the pupil at ease)

Find the level - During the drive
So why do you want to learn to drive?
Does your Dad have a car? <answers 'yes'>
Do you watch him when he's driving? <answers 'yes'>
Are you studying The Highway Code? <answers 'yes'>
Have you booked your theory test yet? <answers 'not yet, but I will be soon'> - Good!

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Arrived at training area..
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<examiner says 'pull up in a safe place anywhere along here please'>
OK, I think this road is quiet enough so I'm going to pull up in safe place just past that lamp post.
Don't take your seat belt off just yet. I'd just like to explain how to get in and out of the car before we swap seats.

Parking Brake
The first thing to do before you leave the car is to make sure the hand brake is fully on and you've switched the engine off. Even if your just going to post a letter. Just pull it up to make sure it won't go any further like this (demonstrate). That's really important because if your car rolls into another car because you didn't put the hand brake on properly it would be your fault and you'd have to pay for any damages.

Getting Out
When you open the door from this side, you must make sure you don't make others slow down or swerve for you. So start by checking the interior mirror and wait for a long gap in the traffic behind. Then look in your door mirror to double check and finally look over your right shoulder into the blind spot for motorbikes and cyclists. 'Blind spots' are the areas at the sides of the car that you can't see in the mirrors. I'll talk more about blind spots later when I explain about the mirrors.

On the pavement side, watch out for pedestrians, prams, wheel chairs, old people buggies etc. It's your responsibility as the driver to make sure it's safe before your passengers open their doors. Don't let them open their doors unless you can see that it's safe for them to do so and ask them to check that it's safe as well.

The best way to open the door is to use the hand that is farthest away from the handle like this. The reason for that is it helps to prevent the door from suddenly flying wide open if there's a strong gust of wind. You'll also find it's a bit easier to get out if you do it like that.

Getting In
Getting into the car is pretty straight forward but it's better to stand on the pavement behind the car so that traffic coming up the road can see you and you can see them. Then wait for a safe gap before moving to the door and keep looking down the road as you open it. Once inside, give it a firm pull to make sure it closes properly.

OK, let's swap seats now but when you take your seat belt off, keep hold of the buckle and guide it back. It's spring loaded so don't just let it fly back on it's own or it could hit you in the face or even crack the side window. Once you're outside, close the door properly and I'll meet you on the pavement at the back of the car.

(take the ignition keys with you and push the seat back a bit. Talk the 'pupil' through making sure the boot is closed properly and how to get into the car. Tell them not to adjust the seat or touch anything until you get in.)

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Cockpit Drill
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Right Peter, it's going to be mainly talking today and there's quite a lot of information to get across so if I go too fast or there's anything you don't understand, just stop me and I'll be happy to explain things again.

To make things a bit easier, I'll split the lesson into sections. So I'll start off by explaining the cockpit drill. Then I'll explain about the foot pedals and hand controls. If there's enough time left after that I'll explain how to start up the engine safely and how to move off and stop.

Right then.. the cockpit drill
It's very dangerous trying adjusting things while you're driving so you must make sure your seat and mirrors are properly adjusted before you set off. An easy way to make sure you don't forget to to do this is to get into the habit of doing what we call the 'Cockpit Drill' every time you get into the car. There's just four things to check and an easy way to remember them is simply DSSM which stands for Doors, Seat, Seatbelt and Mirrors in that order. (draw diagram) If you always remember to do the cockpit drill when you first get into the car it should soon become second nature to you.

Doors
The first thing you need to check on the cockpit drill is the doors. I've already explained how to leave and enter the car safely. Once your inside the car, make sure that all of the doors are closed properly. If your door isn't shut properly, you'll hear it rattle like this (demonstrate from your side after checking behind). You can also check if the doors are shut properly by looking in the door mirrors. The doors should be flush along the car body. Can you see that my door isn't flush in my mirror? See the difference now it's closed? What does your door look like? <answers 'it's flush'> - Good.

If you realise a door isn't closed properly after you start driving, pull up somewhere safe and close it. Don't try to close it while you're driving!

Seat
OK - The next item in the cockpit drill is?  ...the seat
The seat needs to be adjusted so that you can press down the foot pedals and turn the steering wheel comfortably without stretching or being too crunched up. You should be able to press the left pedal all the way down to the floor using your left foot with your knee slightly bent and you should be able to freely slide your hands from the top of the steering wheel to the bottom.

Leg Adjustment
To adjust the seat for your legs, just lift the lever under the front of the seat and use the steering wheel to push or pull yourself into position. Could you do that now please?.. Make sure the seat locks into place by wiggling your body backwards and forwards like this (demonstrate).

Arm Adjustment
To adjust the seat for your arms, think of the steering wheel as a clock face and adjust the back rest so that you can hold the steering wheel at the ten-to-two or quarter-to-three position with your elbows slightly bent. To adjust the back rest there's a lever at your right. Just lift it up and then press your body against the back of the seat or lean forward until you feel comfortable. Could you do that now please? - Thanks!

Head Restraint Adjustment
The last adjustment on the seat is the head restraint. Most people call it a head rest but it's not there for resting your head. It's there to prevent your head from being suddenly thrown backwards if you ever get bumped from behind. It can help prevent neck injury, whiplash or even spinal injuries so it's really important to remember to adjust it properly. You should be able to feel the head restrain just touching the back of your skull, not the back of your neck. To adjust it, reach over your head with both hands and move it up and down. Does that feel OK? <answers 'yes'> - It looks good to me. Remember to make sure your passengers head restraints are also adjusted properly while your at it.

So we've covered making sure the doors are closed properly and how to adjust the seat to get into a comfortable driving position. What comes next? - Remember, DSSM? <answers 'seat belt'> - That's right!

Seat belt
Could you just put your seat belt on a moment? That's good, you haven't got it twisted and you've put the buckle into the clasp securely. Just remember to make sure you check that it's not twisted and that the buckle is securely fastened into the clasp when you put it on. Always put your seat belt on before you start driving even for short journeys because it could save your life one day. If you ever do forget to put your seat belt on after you start driving, pull up somewhere safe and put it on. Don't try putting it on while you're driving!

What's the maximum fine for not wearing a seat belt?
Who's responsibility is it for making sure passengers under 14 are wearing their seat belt?

You should also make sure that all of your passengers put their seat belts on before you set off just in case they don't know or they forget. Although it's their legal responsibility to put it on, It's your moral responsibility to make sure they wear it. OK, you can take your seat belt off for now but remember, don't let it fly back on it's own!

Mirrors
The last item to check in the cockpit drill or DSSM routine is the...? <answers 'mirrors'> - Yes

The mirrors are probably the most important things to understand in driving. I'll be talking about the mirrors a lot as your lessons progress but for now you just need to know about the different types of mirrors and how to adjust them to get a good view of the road behind.

Interior Mirror Adjustment
You must make sure the mirrors are clean and properly adjusted before you start driving. Try not to get any finger marks on them when you adjust them and if they ever crack you should have them replaced as soon as possible. The best way to adjust the interior mirror is to sit straight in your seat and pretend you're driving. Then hold it around the edges with both hands and adjust it so that you can see as much of the road behind as possible without actually moving your head.

So just pretend you're driving and adjust the interior mirror please?.. Now look forward again and just move your eyes to look into it. Is the view the same? If not, keep adjusting it until you get the best view without moving your head. Is it OK now? <answers 'yes'> Now tilt it a little towards the road so you can see more of the traffic rather than the pavement. Is it OK now? <answers 'yes'> - Good, now for the door mirrors...

Door Mirror Adjustment
You need to adjust the door mirrors so that you can see a little bit of the car and most of the road behind. (draw diagram) In this car you can adjust them from the inside by wiggling the lever next to each mirror. You'll have to lean over to adjust the passenger door mirror but remember to check it again when you sit straight in your seat. Could you adjust the door mirrors then please? - Thanks. Now that you've set the mirrors properly, I just want to explain about the different types of mirrors and what blind spots are..

Mirror Types
There's two different types of mirrors fitted to most cars. The interior mirror is usually made from flat glass and the door mirrors are made from rounded or 'convexed' glass. Flat glass mirrors make things look the same and round glass mirrors make things seem further away than they really are. For example, look at that red car behind us in the interior mirror. Now look at it in your door mirror. Can you see the difference? <answers 'yes, it looks further away in the door mirror'> Yes!

The reason they make door mirrors out of rounded glass is because rounded mirrors give a wider view so you can see more to the sides. Also, since the door mirrors are further away from your eyes than the interior mirror, they can be made smaller but still give you a good view.

The main thing to remember about the door mirrors is that they make things seem further away than they really are so the traffic behind you will be closer to you than you think! Any decisions you make about speed and distance should always be based on what you see in the interior mirror and not the door mirrors. The interior mirror is the only mirror that gives you a true picture of the road behind.

Blind Spots
Unfortunately the mirrors don't cover everything that's happening behind you. The areas that are not covered by the mirrors are called 'blind spots' (Draw diagram). If I draw vision lines from the interior mirror to the back window and down the sides of the car and out for the door mirrors. And if I also draw vision lines from your eyes looking forwards, you can see that there some areas that are not covered by the mirrors or your eyes. These areas are the 'blind spots'. You can only see what's happening in the blind spots by turning your head to look into them.

What do you think could happen if you just used your mirrors and didn't look into the blind spot when moving away from the side of the road? <answers 'don't know'> - Well even though you used the mirrors and saw there was nothing there, a cyclist could be in the blind spot or a car could be pulling out of a driveway across the road. If you just moved off without checking, you could cause an accident and it would be your fault because you didn't check the blind spots! - Always remember to have a quick glance into the blind spots before you drive into them! More about that later if we get a chance to do some driving...

Recap / Q & A
So we've covered how to get in and out of the car safely, how to adjust the seat and head restraint, how to put the seat belt on and off and how to adjust the mirrors for the best possible view of the road behind. We also talked about the different types of mirrors and I explained what blind spots are. That's just about it for the cockpit drill. Everything is now properly adjusted, you're in a comfortable driving position and ready to drive.  Do the cockpit drill every time you get into the car from now on so that it becomes second nature to you. Just remember DSSM - Doors, Seat, Seat belt and Mirrors... in that order.

Any questions about the cockpit drill before we move onto the foot pedals? < answers 'No, I don't think so'>

So what's the first thing you need to check in the cockpit drill?
Why is it important to adjust the head restraint?
Which mirrors make things look further away than they really are?
What is a blind spot?

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Foot Controls
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Any idea what the foot pedals are called and what they do? <answers 'Not really'>

Well as you can see on the floor in front of you there are three pedals. There's the Accelerator on the right, the Brake in the middle and the Clutch on the left (draw diagram). An easy way to remember them is simply 'ABC' backwards, Accelerator, Brake and Clutch. The accelerator and foot brake are used with your right foot because you never have to stop and go at the same time, and your left foot operates the clutch pedal. Never bring your left foot over to the brake pedal. Your left foot is only for the clutch pedal.

Accelerator
You can think of the accelerator or 'gas' pedal as a sort of tap. The more you press it, the more petrol gets to the engine and the faster it will run. When you release it, less petrol gets to the engine and the slower it will run. If you were driving along this would also make the car speed up and slow down. That means you can actually use the accelerator to help you to slow down without using the brakes. This is what we call engine braking.

The accelerator is very sensitive so remember to always use it gently so that your driving is smooth and comfortable for you and your passengers. You only need to press it about the thickness of a pound coin. ...About this much (show finger gap). Later when you start the engine, you can have some practice with the accelerator to get used to the feel of it.

Brake
The foot brake in the middle is used for slowing the car down and for stopping. It's operated with the ball of your right foot and it should be used progressively so that you slow down gradually. You should always press it lightly at first and then gradually increase the pressure as you feel the car slowing down. The foot brake is also very sensitive so you don't need to press it hard.

As soon as you press the foot brake, the brake lights come on at the back of the car to let following traffic know that you're slowing down. What colour are brake lights? <answers 'red?'> - Yes. Red means stop in driving. Red traffic lights means stop for example. Unfortunately the brake lights don't tell the driver behind how hard you're pressing the pedal though. That's why you should always press it gradually so that you give the driver behind plenty of time to notice the brake lights coming on and they can gradually slow down along with you.

What do you think might happen if you pressed the foot brake too hard while you were driving? <answers 'don't know'> Well if you press it too hard you'll slow down very quickly and you won't give the traffic behind enough time to react and they could run into the back of the car! You could even start a skid, especially if the road was wet or icy. I'll also let you have some practice with the foot brake before you do any driving so that you'll have an idea how much to press it to slow down.

Clutch
As I mentioned earlier, the clutch pedal is used with your left foot only. The clutch pedal allows you to temporarily disconnect the engine from the gearbox so that you can change gears. It also prevents the engine from stalling when you bring the car to a stop. You can also use it to make the car move slowly when doing manoeuvres such as reversing.

Basically, you can think of the clutch as two round disks. One disk is attached the engine and turns at the same  speed as the engine. The other disk is attached to the gearbox and it moves backwards and forwards when you press the clutch pedal up and down. (show diagram)    http://aditraining.tv/images/HowTheClutchWorks.png


When the clutch pedal is all the way up, the two disks are pressed hard against each other so all of the power from the engine is transferred through the gearbox and out to the wheels. When you press the clutch pedal all the way down, the two disks separate and no power from the engine is transferred to the wheels. When the clutch pedal is about half way up, the two disks are only just starting to rub against each other so only a small amount of power from the engine is transferred out to the wheels. This is called the biting point. You can use the biting point to make the car move slowly.

Unlike the accelerator and brakes, you can press the clutch pedal down quite quickly but you must remember to bring it up slowly so that the engine reconnects with the gearbox gradually. That's the secret to getting smooth move offs and gear changes. You can also have some practise with the clutch pedal a bit later as well.

Recap / Q & A
That's about it as far as the foot pedals are concerned Peter. To recap then... The accelerator and foot brake are operated with your right foot and the clutch is operated with your left foot only. The accelerator makes the engine speed up and slow down. The footbrake slows and stops the car and the clutch pedal allows you to change gear and make the car move slowly. Always use the accelerator gently, the foot brake gradually and remember to bring the clutch pedal up slowly when setting off and changing gears.

Any questions about the foot pedals before we move on to the hand controls? <answers 'No, I don't think so'>

Why do you have to press the foot brake gradually?
What colour are the brake lights?
Which foot operates which pedal?
What is the biting point?

Great, so I've explained what to do with your feet, now you need to know what to do with your hands. So I'll be talking about the hand brake, the gear lever, the steering wheel and the indicators. (touch each control in turn) I'll explain the light switches, wipers and other things as and when we need them.

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Hand Controls
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Handbrake
The hand brake should really be called a parking brake because that's what it actually does. It prevents the car from rolling about when you park the car up or when you've stopped in traffic. It can also be used to prevent the car from rolling backwards or forwards when setting off on hills.

The difference between the foot brake and the hand brake is that the hand brake only has to prevent the car from rolling about when it's stationary whereas the foot brake has to slow the car down when it's moving. The foot brake is therefore very powerful and works on all four wheels at the same time whereas the hand brake is less powerful and only works on the back wheels to prevent the car from rolling when stationary. Also the brake lights don't come on at the back of the car when you put it on.

What do you think might happen if you put the hand brake on while the car was moving? <answers ' don't know'> - Well the brake lights wouldn't come on at the back for a start so traffic behind wouldn't know you were stopping and you could also lock up the back wheels and cause a rear wheel skid. The main points to remember about the handbrake are therefore; only apply it when the car is stationary, remember to make sure it's either fully on or fully off and always check that the hand brake is fully on before leaving the car.

Could you just press and keep your foot on the foot brake a moment please? Now that you have the foot brake on you can have some practise with the hand brake. To release it, lift it up a little and press the button in like this. (demonstrate) Push it all the way down and let go of the button. To apply it, press the button in and pull it up as far as it will go. When you release the button it will stay on in the up position because it works on a ratchet system.

You've probably seen people pulling the hand brake on without pushing in the button and making a clicking sound? <answers 'yes'> - Well that's not good because it can wear out the ratchet teeth so much that one day you'll apply the hand brake and it won't stay on because the ratchet teeth have worn away. Remember, hand brakes are like children. They should should be seen but not heard!

Now you have a go.. Release it. Pull it on. Release it again. Pull it on. Good, the hand brake is now on so you can take your foot off the footbrake and relax.

Gear Lever
Now for the gear lever.. As you can see there's five gears on this car plus reverse. You won't need fifth or reverse gear today so there's no point in explaining them just yet.

The gears on a car are like the gears on a bike. When you first set off, you need a powerful gear to get the weight of the car moving. Then as the car picks up speed, you need to change up to a higher gear and so on until you reach the required speed (draw diagram). First gear gets you to about 10mph. Second gets you to about 20mph. Third gets you to about 30mph and fourth is used for 40mph and above. It's the sound of the engine that lets you know when to change gear not the speedometer so listen to the sound of the engine to let you know when to change gear rather than watch the speedometer. Knowing when to change gear takes a bit of practice at first but you'll soon learn to recognise from the sound of the engine when to change gears.   http://aditraining.tv/images/TheGears.png


At the moment we're in what is called 'neutral'. Neutral means that no gear is selected. This allows the engine to turn without pulling the car along. You'll need to select neutral when waiting in traffic queues or at traffic lights for example. You'll know that you're in neutral because the gear lever will easily wobble from side to side. Try it...

If you could press the clutch down a moment you can have some practise at selecting the gears..

Think of the gear positions as a letter 'H' (draw diagram). The horizontal line is neutral and there are two springs at each side keeping the gear lever in the middle, just behind third gear. To select first gear you need to push against the spring towards me and then push it up towards the front wheel with the palm of your hand like this.. (show cup hand method). To select second, keep some pressure against the spring towards me and pull it straight back towards the rear left wheel like this... To select third gear just allow the gear lever to return to it's natural position behind third and then push it forward towards the radio. Fourth gear is selected by pulling it straight back towards the back seat with your fingers. Have a go at selecting the gears then Peter starting with first gear.. now second, third and fourth.

Now that you know how to select the gears, you need to be able to do it without looking down at the gear lever so pretend you're driving along and I'll tell you which gear to select without looking... OK, now put the gear lever into neutral and take your foot off the clutch pedal. I'll let you have some more practise at selecting first gear before you move off a bit later on.

Steering wheel
The steering wheel makes the front wheels move left and right when you turn it. You should hold the steering wheel with both hands at the ten-to-two or quarter-to-three position, whichever is more comfortable for you. Your thumbs should be pressed on the rim of the wheel and not wrapped around it. This will help you to brace yourself in case you have a bump.

You've probably seen people crossing there arms when they're driving? There's a number of reasons why that's not a good idea, firstly you have less steering control when turning corners. Secondly you won't be able to brace yourself if your arms are crossed and lastly you could even break your arms if the airbag went off while your arms were crossed over it. I'll teach you how to turn the steering wheel using the 'pull-push' method so that you won't have to cross your arms to steer.

Unfortunately you can't practise turning the steering wheel at the moment because we're stationary. If you turn the steering wheel when the car is stationary you could damage the steering mechanism and damage the front tyres. This is what we call dry steering.

Peter could ask <'why shouldn't I wrap my thumbs around the steering wheel again?'> - Well if you were involved in a side-on collision, your front wheels would instantly turn to full lock. This movement would be transferred up through the steering column and make the steering wheel turn violently. If you had your thumbs wrapped around the steering wheel at the time, they could be broken by the steering wheel's crossbar. - Great question!

Indicators
The indicator stem is situated close to the steering wheel so that you don't have to take your hand off the steering wheel to operate it. You should use an outstretched finger instead. What colour are the indicator lights outside the car? <answers 'orange'> - Well actually they are an amber colour but you're close enough. They are on each corner of the car so that the traffic in front can see them as well as the traffic behind. The indicators lights let others know which way we want to turn. As with the brake lights, indicator signals should always be given early so that other drivers have plenty of time to notice and react to them.

Which way do you think you'd move the indicator if you wanted to turn right? <answers 'up'> Yes, the indicator stem always move the way you intend to turn the steering wheel. So it's up for right and down for left. You can't practise with the indicators while we're stationary because we might confuse other drivers.

Most cars have a self-cancelling mechanism built into the steering wheel that automatically cancels your indicators you when you straighten up after a turn but they don't always work. You must remember to cancel any signals that you give when you've finished with them to avoid confusing others. More about that when you learn how to turn corners in the next lesson or two..

Right then Peter.. We've covered most of what you need to know as far as the main driving controls are concerned. I know it's a lot of information to take in so don't be afraid to ask me if there's anything you don't understand.

Recap / Q & A
Any questions about what we've covered so far then? <answers 'no I don't think so'> - Good!

Why do you need to make sure the hand brake is fully on before you leave the car?
How do check that you're in neutral?
Which way would you put the indicator to turn right?

OK. Before I explain how to move off, you need to know how to make the car safe before starting the engine...

Precautions before starting the engine
Before you start the engine, you must make sure that the hand brake is fully on and that the gear lever is in neutral. That's what we call 'making the car safe'. How do you know when you're in neutral? <answers ' because it will wobble easily from side to side.'> - Yes, neutral means you're not in gear. If you did start the engine in gear, the car would suddenly lurch forwards as soon as you turned the ignition key and you could bump into a car in front.

In future when I say 'make the car safe', I mean check that the hand brake is fully on and the gear lever is in neutral. Could you do that now please? - 'Make the car safe'. OK, So you've made the car safe. Now you can safely start the engine. Here's the keys...

There's two positions on the ignition switch. The first position is the 'on' position and that will bring on the lights. The second position is the 'ignition' position and that will make the engine start to turn. So just turn the ignition key to the first position to bring on the lights. Now turn it some more until you hear the engine start. When you hear the engine start, let the key spring back on it's own to the 'on' position and put your hand on the steering wheel. If the engine doesn't start first time, you can press the accelerator pedal a little to feed some petrol to the engine and try again.

Now that the engine is running, you can have some practise with the accelerator to get used to the feel of it. Remember, it's very sensitive so very gently press and release the accelerator about the width of a pound coin and notice how the engine speeds up and slows down. Just keep doing that a few times till you get used to it. Good!

OK - You can 'make the car safe' now  ...and switch off the engine please?

Recap & Feedback
Unfortunately we've run out of time Peter. Today we covered the cockpit drill - DSSM, the foot pedals - ABC and the hand controls, hand brake, gear lever, steering wheel and indicators. We also covered how to make the car safe before starting up the engine and you had a chance to start the engine and have some practise with the accelerator.

Your next lesson will be moving off and stopping so if you get a chance to read your highway code before then, read about the MSM routine because you'll need to know about that for your next lesson.

Is there anything you'd like to ask me before we finish? <answers 'no'>

Thanks Peter. I've really enjoyed teaching you today!

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#3 27-04-08 14:08:31

Luchell
Verified Member
From: Salisbury
Registered: 12-06-07
Posts: 1,661

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

PST 2/Phase 1 - Moving Off & Stopping
 
This is an example briefing written as if spoken by the PDI and SE during a part 3 exam. It is designed solely to give PDIs an idea of how the moving off & stopping lesson could be delivered and does not imply that your briefings should be the same. It shows the basic techniques of Q+A, lesson structure etc.


You should introduce yourself and tell the pupil what you are going to teach and how you're going to teach it at the test center. You may be in the driving seat as it's only his second lesson. Be guided by the examiner as to which seat to start from.


The examiner will say something like “This is the test of your ability as an instructor, regard me as a pupil and instruct me in the same way as you would normally. It may be necessary for me to interrupt you from time to time. This could be because we are moving on to the next stage or if time is running short.

“I would like you to assume I am a beginner and instruct me in moving off and making normal stops. I had one lesson last week in a car similar to yours and the instructor explained the controls. We did not get round to moving off and I am not too sure about when to use the mirrors. Please correct any faults that may occur”

You will usually drive the examiner to the training area under his direction. Begin the lesson at the test center by introducing yourself and asking his name. Find out what the pupil may already know about driving and why he wants to learn while you are driving to the training area. Use this time to explain using the mirrors for direction, overtaking and stopping. You should try to put the pupil at ease during the drive and tell him what he can expect from the lesson. You should also ask if his eyesight has been checked and that he has a valid driving license (he will say that his eyesight and license are OK to save time). Your driving ability is not measured and will not affect your grade since this is a test of your ability to teach, not your ability to drive.

Introduction - At test centre
Hello, my name is <your name> What can I call you? <answers 'Peter'> - Nice to meet you Peter!
I'm standing in for your instructor today because he's got a bad cold but he'll be back with you next week.

I understand this is your second lesson and last week you learned about the main driving controls and how to do the cockpit drill? <answers 'yes'> - Did you get a chance to do any driving last week? <answers 'no'> OK, was there anything you didn't understand about your last lesson that I could maybe help you with before we start? <answers 'no, I don't think so'> - Great!

Aims and objectives
Today's lesson is going to be moving off and stopping. By the end of the lesson you should be able to move away from the side of the road safely, drive along for a short distance checking the mirrors and then use the MSM routine to pull up in a safe, legal and convenient place close and parallel to the kerb. You'll be putting into practice most of what you learned last week about the controls.

Can you tell me what MSM stands for? <answers correctly>

It' a bit busy here so I'm just going to drive us to a quiet road where we can begin the lesson. I might as well give you a demonstration on moving off while we're here so if you watch me, you'll have a good idea what you'll be doing today. While I'm driving I'll be talking about how to use the mirrors and what sort of things I'm looking for so if you adjust my mirror so that you can see behind, it'll help you to understand what I'm talking about.

What do I need to do before I start driving? <answers 'cockpit drill'> Yes I need to make sure everything is properly adjusted... Remember DSSM from last week?

So the doors are closed properly. My seat is adjusted so that I can press the pedals and turn the steering wheel without stretching or being too crunched up. The head restraint is touching the back of my skull. I've got my seatbelt on and the mirrors are set so that I've got a good view of the road behind. I also check that my passengers have got their seat belts on and their head restraints are set correctly before we go. Your head restraint looks OK to me so could you just put your seatbelt on please? - Good. It's not twisted and it's securely fastened into the clasp. That's the cockpit drill done..

What two things must I check before I start up the engine? <answers 'handbrake and neutral'> Yes!

Now I'm going to go through what we call the 'POM' routine to move off safely. Did your instructor explain what 'POM' stands for? <answers 'no'> Well POM stands for 'Prepare, Observe and Move'. I Prepare the car for moving off, so I check that the handbrake is fully on and I'm not in gear. How do I know when I'm in neutral? <answers 'gear lever moves easily from side to side?'> - Yes, that's right. Now I can find the 'biting point'. Did you get a chance to find the biting point last week? <answers 'no'>

So I select first gear, press the gas pedal about a centimetre to get a lively hum from the engine. Then I bring the clutch up very slowly a centimetre at a time till the front of the car just lifts up a fraction and the engine speed drops a little. Now I get ready to release the handbrake and I'm ready to go. That's the 'Prepare' part done.

Next I do the 'Observe' part by looking in the interior mirror and waiting for a long gap in the traffic behind. When it's clear I check all around the car to look for anything that might prevent me from pulling away. A final look over my right shoulder into the blind spot to look for cyclists, I don't need to give a signal because there's no-one to benefit from it.

Now I do the 'Move' part. If you watch my feet, you'll see I'm hardly moving them. The secret to pulling away smoothly is to keep your feet still until you feel the car just starting to move when you release the handbrake. Now I gently move off by releasing the hand brake, bringing the clutch up very slowly the rest of the way and adding a little bit of gas.

I'm going to explain everything I just did in a lot more detail when we get to the training area so don't worry about remembering things just yet. Did you notice how I steered just then? I used the 'pull-push' method to steer instead of crossing my arms. If you watch my steering, I'll show you how to steer without crossing your arms.

So I'm driving about a metre from the kerb. This is called the normal driving position. I'm looking well up the road because that helps me steer in a straight line and I'm checking all three mirrors frequently so I always know what's happening behind and to the sides of me.

Mirrors Direction, Overtaking & Stopping
(Give commentary drive placing particular emphasis on how to use the mirrors for speed, direction, overtaking)

Changing Speed
You need to make sure it's safe before you speed up or slow down by checking what's happening behind in the middle mirror. If you saw someone was about to overtake you when you look in the middle mirror for example, you'd try to make it easier for them to get past by not speeding up. How quickly you can slow down will depend on how closely the traffic behind is following you. The closer the car is behind you, the earlier you'll need to brake so that they have enough time to notice your brake lights coming on and they can slow down along with you.

Changing Direction
The interior mirror doesn't cover what's happening at the sides of the car, only what's happening behind so you must always check the door mirrors well before you change position in the road to make sure it's safe. What do you think you'd be looking for in this door mirror if you were going to turn left or pull up at the side of the road? (point to left door mirror) <answers 'cyclists?'> - Yes.

Remember, if you are changing speed check your interior mirror first and if you're changing direction or turning corners, check the corresponding door mirror. So you must always check two mirrors when moving left or right and when turning corners for example - very important!

Driving Along
Also, when driving along you should know as much about what's happening behind and to the sides of you as you do about what's happening in the road in front. The only way you can to do that is to get into the habit of regularly checking all three mirrors as you're driving along.

I need to slow down for those traffic lights ahead, so I check the middle mirror to see how close the traffic is behind me. If there was a car driving too close behind me, I'd have to slow down earlier to give them more time to notice my brake lights coming on. They would then be able to slow down along with me. I'm through the lights now so before I speed up, I check the middle mirror again to see if there's anybody trying to overtake me. If someone was trying to overtake me, I wouldn't speed up until they had passed.

I see a line of parked car ahead so I'll need to slow down and steer around them. I need to check the middle mirror to make sure it's safe to slow down. Then I check the right door mirror to make sure it's clear before I steer outwards. Now that I'm past the parked cars, I need to steer left to get back into the normal driving position. Before I steer left, I check the left door mirror to look for cyclists and motorbikes. When I straighten up, I go back to checking all three mirrors every few seconds.

So you see, the mirrors are very important when you're driving because they dictate what you should do next.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
At the training area
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<examiner says 'pull up in a safe place anywhere along here please'>
This road looks quiet enough so I'm going to pull up on the left just past that lamp post. I'll need to use the Mirror-Signal-Manoeuvre routine for pulling up so I do the Mirror part first by checking the interior mirror to make sure it's safe to slow down. Then I check the left door mirror to look for cyclists. Now I do the Signal part and signal if necessary. I don't need to give a signal here because there's nobody around to benefit from it. Next I do the manoeuvre part by steering gently towards the kerb. When I'm about about six inches away, I steer outwards to bring the car parallel the kerb and then I straighten up.

Watch my feet. Now I get ready to stop so I cover the brake and clutch. Covering the pedals means to put your feet on them but not actually pressing them. Now I press the footbrake very gently, and then press the clutch all the way down just before the car stops. I keep the clutch down and continue pressing the brake gently until the car stops. Then I keep my feet still until I make the car safe by putting the hand brake on and putting the gear lever into neutral. Notice how I kept both hands on the steering wheel until the car was fully stopped just then.

So let's swap seats but remember not to let the seatbelt fly back on it's own when you take it off and check that it's safe before you open your door. Make sure you close the door properly when you get out and I'll meet you on the pavement at the back of the car in a second.

(Watch to make sure he leaves and enters the car safely. Move your seat back and take the keys with you. Tell the 'pupil' not to adjust anything until you get in.)

Right then Peter.. What's the first thing you need to do when you get in the car? <answers 'the cockpit drill?'> - Yes that's right. But just before you do that, make sure the hand brake is fully on because the last person to use the car might not have pulled it up properly. So if you could carry out the cockpit drill please and I'll just watch you to see what you've remembered from last week.. (watch for errors) - Well done!

Find the level and recap last lesson
Before we begin, I'd like to just ask you a few questions about what you did last week so that I know how far you got and where we can start today's lesson.

What's the difference between what you see in the interior mirror and what you see in the door mirrors?
What's a blind spot?
What two things must you check before starting up the engine?
How do you find the biting point?
What does 'MSM' stand for?

You seem the have remembered quite a lot from your last lesson. Great!

Briefing on moving off and stopping
As I said earlier, today's lesson is the moving off and stopping lesson so I'm going to explain how to do it on paper first. Then I'll talk you through it a couple of times and hopefully by the end of the lesson you'll be able to do most of it on your own with only a little help from me.

So we're parked up at the side of the road here. (Draw diagram) You're going to move off from the side of the road using the POM routine and steer into your normal driving position, about a metre away from the kerb. Then you're going to drive along slowly in first gear for a short distance checking all three mirrors. Then I'll say 'pull up on the left'. As soon as I say that you need to begin the MSM routine straight away and choose a safe, legal and convenient place to stop. Here's how you would use the MSM routine to pull up at the kerb...

(draw diagram)

MSM Routine
Interior Mirror
So you're driving along.. Start by checking the interior mirror first to make sure it's OK to slow down.
If there was a car following closely behind you, you'd slow down earlier to give the driver behind more time to notice your brake lights coming on. They will then be able to slow down with along you.

Door Mirror
Then check the left door mirror to look for cyclists.
If you see a cyclist, It will depend how far behind the cyclist is as to what you do next. If they're a long way behind you'll need to signal early and then keep checking the door mirror as you move towards the kerb. If they're quite close, you'll have to wait for them to get passed before you move in towards the kerb. In that case you wouldn't give a signal just in case you confused him. If you thought it wasn't safe, you'd abandon the manoeuvre and pull up somewhere else.

Signal
Next you decide if you need to give a signal.
The Highway Code says give signals 'if necessary'. In other words 'don't signal if you don't have to'. So if there's anyone behind you or pedestrians close to where you will be stopping or there are other cars coming towards you, you should give a left signal to let them know you're pulling up. If there's no one around to benefit from the signal, don't give one. If you're ever in doubt about whether to give a signal or not, you should give one.

Manoeuvre
The manoeuvre part is bringing the car towards the kerb and stopping about six inches away from it.
So you'd turn the steering wheel a little towards the kerb and when you're about a foot away, steer the other way to bring the car parallel to the kerb. When the car is parallel, straighten up the wheels, slowly release the accelerator and cover the brake and clutch. When I say 'cover' the pedals, I mean just put your feet on them but don't actually press them.

When the car is running parallel to the kerb, press the foot brake very gently and as you feel the car slowing down, press the clutch pedal all the way down to disconnect the engine and finish braking gently. You should keep both feet down and both hands on the steering wheel until the car stops and settles down. Finally make the car safe by pulling up the hand brake up as far as it will go and select neutral.

SLC
Whenever you pull up at the side of the road you must ask yourself three things. Is it Safe? Is it Legal? and is it Convenient? For example, stopping near the brow of a hill wouldn't be a safe place to stop because you would be forcing other cars to overtake you. (draw diagram) This would put them on the wrong side of the road and if another car was coming over the hill, there could be a nasty head on collision. Another example would be stopping just before a bend because you would again force other drivers coming from behind onto the wrong side of the road. If another car came round the bend, there could be a head on collision. So think carefully about where you stop and don't force other drivers to put themselves in danger.

The next question you need to ask yourself is; Is it Legal? It's illegal to park less than 10 metres away from a junction or in a bus lane during it's hours of operation for example. Can you give me some other examples of where you must not park? <answers correctly> Well done!

Finally, you need to ask yourself if it's convenient? It wouldn't be convenient to stop outside someone's driveway for instance. Or where the kerb has been lowered for wheelchair users. Can you think of any other examples where it wouldn't be convenient to stop?

That's roughly how to move off and stop Peter. Any questions so far?


Co-ordination Of Controls

I'm going to give you a full talk through on how to move off and stop in a minute but just before we do that I'd like you to have a bit of cold practice with the pedals so that you you'll know what to do with your feet when you stop.

So pretend you're driving along. You're right foot is pressing the gas pedal a little and your left foot is on the floor. Now gently release the gas pedal and cover the clutch and brakes. Covering the pedals means to put your feet over them but not actually pressing them. Now press the footbrake gradually and just before the car comes to a stop, press the clutch all the way down to the floor to disconnect the engine from the wheels. Then it would be handbrake and neutral. Have another go at that..

Biting Point Practise
You need to get used to finding the biting point so let's practice that a few times.. So 'make the car safe' and start up the engine please? Here's the keys... (watch for errors)

OK, press the clutch pedal all the way down, select first gear and put your hand back on the steering wheel. Keep the clutch down and gently press the accelerator a little till you hear a lively hum coming from the engine. You only need to press it about the width of a pound coin. This much (show gap with fingers).

Now keep your right foot perfectly still and very slowly bring the clutch up until you hear the engine speed drop a little and you see the front of the car lifts up a couple of centimeters.. That's it, you're at the biting point now. Keep both feet perfectly still. Now get ready to release the hand brake but don't release it just yet. The position you're in right now is called 'prepare to move' so in future when I say 'prepare to move' this is position you need to be in.

We're not going to move the car yet so 'make the car safe' by slowly coming off the accelerator, press the clutch pedal all the way down and select neutral. You can take your feet off the pedals now. Have a couple of goes at finding the biting point on your own exactly as I've just explained so that you know how much to bring the clutch up.

Full Talk Through
I'm now going to talk you through moving off and stopping for the first couple of goes.  After that, you should be able to do it on your own with only a little help from me. So please listen carefully and only do what I tell you to do. No more, no less. You're just going to drive very slowly in first gear to keep things simple so don't worry about changing gears at the moment. Once you can move off and stop on your own, I'll explain how to build up speed and change gears.

Precautions before moving off
Right then Peter, so 'prepare to move' as I explained earlier...

Now do your observations by waiting for a long gap in the traffic and looking all the way round the car, especially into the blind spots. Start by looking down the pavement through the back window. Then look through each window in turn so that you end up looking over your left shoulder. Now decide whether to give a signal or not. If there's nobody around to benefit from a signal there's no need to give one. Most of the time you don't need to signal when moving off because you always wait for it to be clear before you go. Now if it's still safe, keep both feet perfectly still and slowly release the hand brake and put your hand back on the steering wheel.

Now keep your right foot still and very slowly bring the clutch up as you turn the steering wheel a little towards you. That's enough steering. Now steer back towards me a little. A little more. Now back towards you so that you straighten up the front wheels. If you look well up the road it will help you to steer in a straight line.

So you're driving along, checking the mirrors every few seconds and looking well up the road. OK, we're going to pull up just after the second lamp post so the first thing to do is check the middle mirror to make sure it's safe to slow down. Then check the left door mirror to look for cyclist and motorcyclists. We don't need to give a signal so steer a little towards me and when the car is about a foot away from the kerb, steer towards you to bring the car parallel to the kerb.

When the car runs parallel to the kerb, straighten up the wheels and cover the brake and clutch but don't press them yet. Now brake very gently, put the clutch all the way down and keep braking gently until you come to a stop. Keep your feet still with both hands on the wheel until the car settles down. Now apply the hand brake and put the gear lever into neutral. You can take your feet off the pedals now and relax.

So let's go back over what you just did. You used the POM routine to move off and the MSM routine to stop. So you pressed the clutch all the way down, selected first gear, set the gas for a lively hum and brought the clutch up to the biting point. How do you know when you've found the biting point? <answers 'front lifts up a little'>. Good

Then you checked the interior mirror and waited for a long gap in the traffic behind before doing the all round observations. Then you released the hand brake keeping your feet still and as soon as the car started to move, you steered outwards then counter-steered inwards to bring the car straight and then you straightened up the steering wheel. You drove along for a short distance checking all three mirrors and then I said 'pull up on the left'.

You checked the middle mirror to make sure it was OK to slow down. The left door mirror to check for cyclists and you didn't need to signal because there was no one around. You then steered gently towards the kerb and when you were about a foot away from it, you steered the other way to bring the car parallel with the kerb. After you straightened up, you covered the clutch and footbrake but didn't press them. Then you gently pressed the foot brake to slow down and then you pressed the clutch all the way down and finished braking until the car stopped. You kept your feet still and your hands on the steering wheel until the car settled down and then you made the car safe by putting on the hand brake and selecting neutral.

So that's how to move off and stop. I'll talk you through it again for practise and then we'll see how much you can remember by doing it on you're own. (Give another full talk through)

OK let's try it again now but this time I'll only help you if you need it. Once you can move away and stop reasonably well on your own, I'll explain how to build up some speed and how to change gears.

Continue to practise the exercise until the pupil can do it mostly on their own and if there's enough time go on to building speed and changing gears...

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#4 27-04-08 20:10:35

catweazle
Verified Member
Registered: 04-03-08
Posts: 75

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

would love some more  please
really good

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#5 30-04-08 19:37:53

Shrek
Verified Member
From: South Wales
Registered: 28-02-05
Posts: 255

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

I'd love to see some more too!
cheers for that, really good reading and really helpful.


Carry on Donkey -  you're going the right way for a smacked bottom!

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#6 20-05-08 08:06:13

will66
Member
From: London and Essex
Registered: 13-05-08
Posts: 6

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Thank you. Really really useful. More please when you have time! Thanks, W.

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#7 20-05-08 11:11:18

Lucky245
Verified Member
From: N.Ireland
Registered: 09-05-07
Posts: 119

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Excellent keep um coming  tongue  especially like the intro by the examiner at least I get an idea of what will possibly happen.


"Just because you don't like the answer doesn't mean its wrong!!!"

RoADA Gold

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#8 05-07-08 12:41:54

trudealz
Member
Registered: 13-06-08
Posts: 12

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Hellooo,   anybody know where i can see the rest of these?????., for the remaining psts.

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#9 18-07-08 21:08:33

martyn48
Guest

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

download the ADI1 from the DSa website, it is invaluable.

Martyn Bryan

#10 08-02-09 19:38:39

walsh
Verified Member
Registered: 29-02-08
Posts: 241

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Martyn I've looked and can't find it, have you a link?

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#11 08-02-09 20:13:13

george
Verified Member
Registered: 19-03-07
Posts: 348
Website

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Oh, (shiver down spine) brings back vivid memories of my part 3. Move of and stop. Didn't brief him on how to stop! Still passed tho.

Good reading for any PDI.


Paul Shackleton DSA ADI.-----DSA Fleet, Diamond Advanced, NVQ L3 In driver Training & Assessment, A1 & Ordit

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#12 08-02-09 22:06:15

timmanwaringadi
Verified Member
From: Devon
Registered: 29-08-06
Posts: 2,406
Website

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Walsh:

http://www.dsa.gov.uk/Documents/publica … cument.pdf

When you go to the DSA home page, the left sidebar has a link to "Forms and Publications" both this and the DT1 (guidance for examiners) is available.

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#13 08-05-09 21:16:38

Woodyloon
Verified Member
From: North East Scotland
Registered: 26-04-09
Posts: 64

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Hi

How many different Pre Set Test scenarios is there?

Thanks

John


Part 1   30/10/09   100/67
Part 2   29/9/10     2 d/f

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#14 09-05-09 09:20:11

nay7272
Member
Registered: 18-04-09
Posts: 58

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

there is 10 pst but each has 2 scenerios i.e beginner and part trained on the 1st scenerio and on the 2nd one from part trained to test standard

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#15 30-07-09 18:54:00

Biff
Member
Registered: 29-07-09
Posts: 4

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Hi, thanks for the help, only just passed pert one, part two in 5 weeks time, but at the age of 54 thinking this part three is a little bit to much for me, need all the help i can get.
Doing the course with the AA, my instructor is very good, he is a 6-6 and says don't worry about the my age,
Thanks again. Biff

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#16 30-07-09 21:50:06

Freedom Phil
Verified Member
From: Sunderland, North East UK
Registered: 31-03-09
Posts: 342
Website

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Very interesting read..... But if you are a PDI, just remember to mention the dual's to your pupil if your doing a controls lesson or move off n stop  wink

I wonder if we could get all the trainers on here to join together and come up with a definitive briefing for each PST.... or would that create the biggest argument ever?   tongue

.phil.


DIA diploma in driving instruction.  DSA registered fleet trainer.  ORDIT registered trainer part's 1, 2, 3 & ORDIT premises inspected.  SAFED trainer and assessor.  RoSPA approved tutor.  Diamond registered advanced instructor.  Diamond qualified advanced examiner. City & Guilds 7303 PTLLS teaching certificate.  IAM advanced test, Diamond advanced test, Diamond special test, Cardington special test, RoSPA gold

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#17 12-11-10 21:31:13

Woodyloon
Verified Member
From: North East Scotland
Registered: 26-04-09
Posts: 64

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

I wonder if we could get all the trainers on here to join together and come up with a definitive briefing for each PST.... or would that create the biggest argument ever?   tongue

.phil.

Hi

Did this suggestion ever become reality?

John


Part 1   30/10/09   100/67
Part 2   29/9/10     2 d/f

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#18 16-04-11 08:21:58

apples69
Member
Registered: 05-09-09
Posts: 82

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Luchell, this is fantastic will you be adding more?

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#19 16-04-11 15:18:16

KevB
Verified Member
From: Amesbury
Registered: 06-06-08
Posts: 1,725
Website

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

apples.

Although Luchell posted the thread, it was actually Blaine Walsh.

http://www.driving-instructor.tv/home

Further help for PDI's is via an associated forum.
http://aditraining.proboards.com/index.cgi?

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#20 16-04-11 17:09:02

apples69
Member
Registered: 05-09-09
Posts: 82

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

so its blaines walshes psts?

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#21 28-01-15 10:13:41

Angus
Verified Member
From: Edinburgh
Registered: 25-01-15
Posts: 18
Website

Re: Pst guidance as written by Adi training.

Some really good points written up here thanks for taking the time to write it all up

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